Static Facts of the World are described below. As General knowledge is very important to clear any exam. Here are some of the historical facts and knowledge about the world.
- Sun Temple, Konark (Odisha)
Sun Temple is situated at Konark, Odhisha, India. This is also called surya devalaya and black pagoda. This temple is dedicated to the Hindu God, Surya.
- Discovery of India, Book
‘Discovery of India’ Book was written by ‘Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru’ during his imprisonment (1942-1946) at Ahmednagar fort in Maharashtra. Total Number of pages in the book are 595. Original Language in which the book is published is English.
- SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation)
SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) : SAARC is the intergovernmental organization composed of 8 nations. Headquarters of SAARC Secretariat are at Kathmandu, Nepal. Secretary- General of SAARC is Amjad B. Hussain. SAARC is established on 8th December, 1985. Eight members includes Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Srilanka and Pakistan.
- Mallika Sarabhai – Daughter of Vikram Sarabhai
Mallika Sarabhai is an activist and Indian classical dancer from Ahmadabad, Gujarat. She is the daughter of famous space scientist Vikram Sarabhai. She performs Kuchipudi (Classical dance from Andhra Pradesh) and Bharatanatyam (Classical dance from Tamilnadu).
- India’s First satellite Launching Station is located at thumba. Thumba is a outline district of Thiruvanthampurum city (Capital of kerala).
- Vatican city is the country located in the city of Rome. It is the smallest state in the world area wise. It is ruled by the pope. Pope Francis is the 266th and current pope of the Catholic church.
First in World
Humans have innate tendency to evolve, explore and adventure. These are the list of adventures, expeditions, discoveries and inventions which were made first time in the history of mankind
- The First person to reach Mount Everest: Sherpa Tenzing and Edmund Hillary. Sherpa Tenzing was a Nepali Indian sherpa mountaineer. He was married three times. He died because of cerebral haemorrhage in Darjeeling West bengal. On the other hand, Sir Edmund Hillary was a New Zealand mountaineer. On May 29, 1953, Hillary along with Tenzing became the first climbers to reach Mount Everest. Sir Edmund Hillary was a great philanthropist. He had constructed many schools and hospitals in the remote areas of Himalayas. He was also the president of Mountain Wilderness which is an NGO to protect the mountains of the world.
- The first Person to reach North Pole: Robert Peary. He was born on May 6, 1856 at Cresson, Pennsylvania, Washington D.C, United states. He was the first person to reach North Pole (1909). In some of the resources, Frederick Cock professed to be the first person to reach North Pole.
- The first person to reach South Pole: Roald Amundsen was a Norwegian explorer. Actually the Goal of him is to reach the North pole but he had heard that Robert Peary was leading an expedition towards Arctic so he changed his plans. One of the interesting facts about his expedition is he kept his plans (he was moving towards Antarctica) secret both to public as well as his team as he didn’t want to put the expedition to risk.
- First man in space: Yuri Gagarin. He was a soviet Air Force Pilot and Cosmonaut/Astronaut. He was the first person to fly in space. His flight on April 12, 1961 lasted 108 minutes in his capsule VOSTOK. He completed one orbit of earth during his flight. His remains are burried at kremlin in MOSCOW. Coming back to his life and death, he was born near Moscow, Russia on March 9, 1934 and died on March 27, 1968. Throwing some light on his spacecraft, it has two section one for Yuri Gagarin and another for supplied he needed such as water and oxygen. One point that I would like to talk about his death is he was killed in a plane crash before he could travel space second time. Gagarin kept physically fit throughout the life. He was keen sportsman. He was found of ice hockey and liked to play as a goal keeper.
The first country to issue paper currency: China. Paper money is an invention of the song dynasty in china in the 11th century CE. This money was called jiaozi. Life span of this currency is about 3 years. After this, Song dynasty introduced a national currency which has life span of 9 years. In about 1890, it was Qing Dynasty which started producing yuan.
- The first European to reach china: Marco Polo. He was born in the republic of Venice in 1254. He began his journey when he was teenager. One of the interesting fact about marco is he had left home when he was 17 years old and did not returned home for about 24 years. Can you imagine that in these 24 years, he has travelled 15000 miles both sea and land wise. He was buried in the church of San Lorenzo in Venice. Many believe that he had brought pasta to venice but it is not true, instead pasta was the part of Italian cuisine before the birth of Marco, instead he had brought concept of paper money.
The first president of U.S.A: George Washington, was born at pope’s creek, virginia. He is the only president to have never occupied the white house. One of the interesting fact about him was sickliest president ever. He suffered from many ailments such as malaria, tuberculosis and many more. He had an interesting habit of writing letters and had written about 18-20 K letters in his life span. He was a man of few words. Could you believe that during his second inauguration, he gave the speech which was the shortest ever given by the president. By the way he was the only president inaugurated in two cities. He was the only sitting american who actually lead the troops in the battle. He was one of the richest president in the U.S.A History. He loved to dance.
- The first European to attack India: Alexander, The Great. The name Alexander comes from the Greek word “alexo” that means “defend” and “andr,” which means “protector of men”. On the day Alexander was born, King Philip (his father) got the news that his general- Parmenion had defeated the armies of Illyria and Paeonia. In addition, his horse had also won at the Olympic Games. Alexander is considered to be a descendant of the Greek hero Hercules from his paternal side and Achilles from his maternal side. Alexander was schooled by one of the most famous philosophers in history (Aristotle). Alexander has a reputation as a big drinker. The cause of his death remains a mystery. Alexander had great presence of mind when it came to military warfare. He was a cunning tactician who would devise ways to defeat his enemies with his superior strength in terms of soldiers and weapons. He never lost a battle during his countless campaigns bears testament to his military might. He had a profound effect on modern-day historians. Alexander was undoubtedly one of the greatest tacticians and military minds to have ever lived. His battlefield tactics are still studied by modern-day military counterparts.
- The first person to fly aeroplane: Wright Brothers. From an early age, Wilbur and Orville Wright were fascinated by flight. Their passion was stimulated by a helicopter toy brought by their father. Their mother susan koerner wright was much talented. It is believed that she could make anything by hands. In this way, they inherited such mechanical savvy from their mother. While the Wright brothers were undoubtedly bright, neither of them ever earned his high school diploma. Wilbur became reclusive after suffering a bad hockey injury, and Orville dropped out of school. Both the brothers were never married. Five people who witnessed the first flights of the Wright Brothers are Adam Etheridge, John T. Daniels, Will Dough, W.C. Brinkley and teenager Johnny Moore. Wilbur died of typhoid fever, at age 45, on May 30, 1912 in Dayton, Ohio. Orville Wright died of a heart attack on January 30, 1948 (aged 76) in Dayton, Ohio.
- The first person to land on the moon: Neil Armstrong. He was the first man to step foot on the moon on July 20th, 1969. His Apollo space suit was made by Playtex. He fell in love with flying at an early age, and earned his pilot’s license on his 16th birthday even before he received his driver’s license. Astronaut Neil Armstrong was the only professor at the University of Cincinnati that did not have a doctorate, although he earned his Master’s by giving a presentation on aspects of the Apollo 11 Mission. Neil Armstrong’s funeral service was on the day of a blue moon. In a nutshell, he was an astronaut, a naval officer, a rocket scientist, a test pilot, an aviator in the United States Navy, and a university professor.
- The first batsman to score three test century in three successive tests on debut: Mohd. Azharuddin. Class, style and leadership are hallmarks of Mohammad Azharuddin’s character. Till date, Azharuddin is the only cricketer with the distinction of scoring a century in each of his first three Tests. In 2000, Azharuddin was embroiled in a match-fixing scandal and was banned for life by BCCI, barring him from participation in cricket. On 8th November 2012, a Divisional Bench consisting of Justice Ashutosh Mohanta and Justice Krishna Mohan Reddy of the Andhra Pradesh High Court dismissed the match-fixing ban imposed upon him.
- First Secretary General of the United Nations: Trygve Lie. Let us Delve (hunt through) through some of the facts about Trygve Lie. He was the first Secretary General of the United Nations. He was born in OSLO, Norway on July 16, 1896. He was elected for this post on February 1, 1946 for a term of 5 years. In 1948, he acted as a mediator between India and Pakistani over Kashmir’s conflict. In 1950, he launched 20 years peace program. In 1966, he was honored with ‘Medal for Outstanding Civic Service’, a highest civilian honor in Norway. The reason for his death was heart attack.
- The first woman to be appointed judge of the Supreme Court (India): Justice M Fatima Beevi. There was time in India when doing some jobs such as judiciary and many other are considered to be done by men only. They consider it to be their prerogative (birth right). But in 1989. when Fatima Beevi was appointed as the judge of the Supreme Court perception changed. It was watershed movement for women and paved a way for their upliftment and equal status in society. She became the first Muslim woman to be appointed to any of the higher judiciaries in the country. She studied law at Trivandrum’s law college. After retiring in 1992, she served as a member of National Human Rights Commission. In 1997, she was appointed as the governor of Tamil Nadu. USIBC (United States India Business Council) awarded lifetime achievement award to honourable justice Fathima Beevi.
- The first country to host the modern Olympics: Greece. Let us plunge into some of the facts about this country. I hope readers would love this. No one in greece can choose to vote. It is required by law for every citizen who is 18 or older than that. There are lot of mountains in greece. About 80 % of the greece is covered with mountains. Alexender the Great was the first greek ruler to put his own face on greek coin. Olympics games originated in ancient greece. Ikaria is one of the five blue zones in the world where people have the longest lifespans in the world. Football is the national sport in greece. Athens is the capital of greece. It (greece) contributes to around 7 % of total marble produced all over the world. It is also the third largest producer of olives. It has total of more than 2000 islands out of which 170 are populated. There are more than 250 days of sunshine in a year in greece. Every year one month of paid vacations is provided to a greek worker. So in a nutshell, it can be concluded that greece is country of sunny days, mountains, tourisms, olive, marbles and origin country of olympics games.
- The Largest Lake (Fresh Water Lake): Wular Lake (Jammu & Kashmir). Let us quickly gain some of the vital information about this lake quickly. It is in Maqbuza Kashmir (Bandipora). Jhelum river feed into this lake. Surrounded by majestic ranges of himalayas mountains and dense alpine forest, this lake is home to diverse species of world. 60 % fish yield of kashmir comes from here. June-August is the best season to visit here. Tectonic activity leads to foundations of this lake. Deepest part of wular lake is called Mota Khon of Gulf of Corpses. This lake is often flooded by water draining from pohru stream. This is not related to first in world but stll i have included this. Please do read this.
- First Satellite: Sputnik. The first ever artificial satellite launched by soviet union on October 4, 1957. On this day humanity entered the space. It weighted 86 kg and 58 cm wide. It has two double barelled antenna. It was powered by three silver zinc batteries. It was designed to operate for 2 weeks but the result was beyond expectation and it continued sending signals (radio signals) for 22 days. It orbitted earth every 98 minutes. IT remained in orbit until Jan 4, 1958 and burned up in the earth’s atmosphere. There is an interesting fact associated with Sputnik II. It carried living creature (dog named Laika) in space. Unfortunately, there is no plan to bring the dog back to earth, it died in space. Watching such success of soviet union i.e launch of sputnik in space, it launched its first satellite in space on Jan 31, 1958 which is named as The Explorer I. Sputnik was launched at Baikanur cosmodrome. The propagation of the radio signal provided information about the ionosphere. The chief constructor of this satellite was M.S Khomyakov.
- First person to swim English Channel: Matthew Webb: He swimmed the English channel without the use of artificial aids. He was born on Jan 19, 1848 at Dawley, England. The English channel is body of water that separates the south coast of England from north coast of France. He joined the merchant navy when he as 12 and leaned to swim in the river severn which is near his home. On July 1883, he tried to swim whirlpool rapids near Niagara falls. During such act, he died.
- First man to draw the map of earth: Anexemander. He was a greek philospher who has deep interest in cosmology. He had made significant contributors to geography and is the first man to draw map of Earth. He was born in Miletus. He was also the inventor of Gnomon on the sundial. He said that origin is boundless. This is called as apeiron which can explain change better than thale’s water.
- Country who won the first cricket world cup: West Indies. World cup was held in year 1975 in England. Final was played between Australia and West Indies at lord’s. At that year it was not 50-50 over game instead 60-60. Australia was runner up. It was also called as prudential world cup as prudential pic (a financial service company) sponsored this. West indies captain Clive Lloyd made 102 from 85 deliveries. In 60 over west indies made (291-8) i.e 291 runs and 8 wickets fallen. In response, Australian captain Ian Chappel made 62 playing 93 deliveries but ends at losing the match. Australia was all out at 274 in 58.4 overs.
- The first person to score an innings of 400 runs in cricket: Brain Lara. It was 4th test played between England and West Indies at ST. John on April (10-14, 2004). Overall match was drawn. Brain Lara was not out at 400 runs facing 512 deliveries. In his innings he played 43 fours and 4 sixes. Overall 4 match series was won by England (3-0) and Steve Harminson was player of the series.
- The First 1000 wicket taker in cricket: Muttiah Muralitharan. He is a giant performer and holds the record for most wickets in one day as well as test matches. He played for srilanka. He averaged 20.80 in test matches and 21.23 in ODI’S (Bowling Stats). His total test matches are 800 and ODI wickets as 534. In 2017. he became the only srilankan to be inducted into the Hall of Fame.
- The First US President to resign Presidency: Richard Nixon. He was 37th President of U.S. He was a lieutenant commander in the navy during word war II. Watergate refers to the complex building in Washington D.C. The head quarters of democratic party was located at Watergate office. Several men who wanted Richard Nixon to be re elected as president breaks into the office (Watergate) but on June 17, 1972 they were caught.
- First country to make education compulsory: Prussia. It is a German state. Before being absorbed in germany, prussia was major military and economic power in the central Europe in 18th and 19th centuries. It was abolished in 1947 by the allies who falsely claimed that it was an embodiment (representation) of nazism.
- First Country to win Football Worldcup: Uruguay. It is a country in the south eastern region of the south america. Talking about its neighbouring countries, it shares west with Argentina, north and east with brazil. It is surrounded with Atlantic ocean in the south east. Spanish is the national language whereas uruguayan pesu is their currency. It is 1930 FIFA world cup which took place at uruguay from 13-30 July, 1930. FIFA stands for Federation International of Football Association. The final was played with uruguay and argentina at Estadio Centenario. Uruguay won the match 4-2.
- First deaf and dumb to cross the strait of Gibraltar: Taranath Shenoy (India). He is an honoree of the international marathan swimming hall of fame. The government of india awarded him the fourth highest civilian award of india (Padma Shri) in 1990. Along with swimming strait of Gibraltar, he swam across the english channel thrice between 1983 and 1985. (2 times from england to france) and (1 time from france to england). When he completed his swimming across english channel, catalina channel and the Manhattan island, he won the Triple crown of Open water Swimming from the world open swimming association. His achievements truly inspired us and reminds that anyone can achieve anything
Inventions and Inventors
1. Who invented Telephone: Alexander Graham Bell: He was brought up in Edinburgh Scotland. He was a teacher for the deaf at Boston University. It is a private research university in Boston, Massachussets. From an early age in Boston, he had an inquisitive (curious) mind. He became attracted with acoustic and voice patterns. While teaching he was experimenting he played with transmitting sound via electricity. Telephone was developed as a result. He applied patent on March 7, 1876. He also helped Helen Keller to find the treatment for her deaf-blindness. Bell died because of anaemia on 2nd August, 1922.
2. Who invented lightbulb: Thomas edison: We all know that incandescent lamp was invented by Edison but if one look at the facts and history, there were over 20 inventors. Reason why Edison is credited with such invention is based on three factors. Factor 1: use of effective incandescent material. Factor 2: A high vacuum as compared to what was achieved by other inventors. Factor 3: A high resistance. Team at Edison invention factory tested more than 6000 possible material to choose best filaments in Menlo Park, New Jersey. As a result of these experiments carbonised bamboo was found best solution. One of the fact related to his sleep is that he could go to sleep anywhere, anytime on anything.
3. Who invented Basketball: James Naismith (1861-1939). He was canadian physical education instructor who invented basketball in 1891. He was not good at studies but was excellent at games. One of the famous saying of him is ,“Basketball does not build character it reveals it”. As the time passed the game became so popular that it became an official event at the summer Olympics in Berlin (capital of Germany). He invented 13 rules for this game for example preventing players from running.
- 4. Who invented World Wide Web: Tim Berner’s Lee. He was the man leading the development of world wide web , HTML, HTTP and URL. He is born in London, England. He is a scientist and academic whose visionary and innovative work has transformed humans lives in many aspects. He invented the web in 1989 while working at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research). He is director of world wide web consortium (organization to lead the web to it’s full potential).
- 5. Who Invented Telescope: Many of the people believe that telescope was invented by italian astronomer Galileo Galilei but it is not absolute truth. The earliest work for designing of telescope was done by German-Dutch Lensmaker Hans Lippershey in 1608. Galileo heard about work of hans in 1609. He improved his designs and invented a new telescope. Using this telescope, he discovered four largest moons of jupyter including Lo, Ganymede, Callisto and Europa. Talking more about him, in 1609 he changed people opinion about moon where people believes that moon contains shadow. But Galileo realized that it actually contains mountains and craters. Along with these mentioned discoveries, he also improved many scientific instruments including telescope, compass and microscope.
- 6. Who Invented Radio: Many people believe that italian physicist Guglielmo Marconi was the inventor of radio. Yes it is true but let us elaborate it more. For this discovery, there was head to head between Marconi and Serbian-Amercian Scientist Nikola Tesla. In 1884, tesla invented induction/tesla coil which is essential to send and receive radio waves. In 1895, as he was preparing to send radio signal, a fire destroyed his lab. In year 1896, marconi on the other hand carried out his experiments and was successful in sending and receiving Morse code based radio signals. He applied patent for tuned telegraphy. In 1901, he transmitted first transatlantic telegraph. Finally in 1904, U.S Patent office gave italian patent for the invention of radio. In 1909, Marconi won the nobel prize for physics. In 1915, tesla appealed for patent breach and in 1943, U.S Supreme court restored tesla as the inventor of radio.
- 7. Who Invented Television: Philo Taylor Farnsworth demonstrated first television signal transmission on September 7, 1927. But many researchers and scientist played a pivotal role in the invention. Donot forget John Logie Baird who invented first mechanical television. Another Inventor Charles Francis Jenkins (American) proved to be instrumental in development of television and camera technology. In a nutshell, television was invented by the contribution of these scientists.
Let us dive into some static facts about states of India
- Static Facts about Punjab
- Punjab Merged into British territory in the year 1849.
- Adi Granth was composed by Guru Arjan Dev ji in 1604
- 18 Compositions have been included in the Dasam Granth
- Ratnawali is composed by Bhai Mani Singh
- Jafarnama is available in Punjabi and Persian
- Coins of the Sikhs initially is introduced by Banda Singh Bahadar
- Lodi Dynasty was founded by Bahlul Khan Lodi which was succeeded by his second son Sikandar Lodi.
- Ibrahim Lodi, the youngest son of Sikandar Lodi was the last Lodi sultan of Delhi.
- Daulat Khan Lodi was the governor of Lahore during the reign of Ibrahim Lodi.
- Babur attacked Punjab in the year 1519 for the first time.
- Babur attacks Punjab five times
- List of Mughal Emperor in ascending order of their rule is as below:
c.) Akbar (Jalal)
d.) Jahangir (Saleem)
h.) Mujammad Azam Shah
i.) Bahadur Shah I
Last ruler of Mughal Emperor is Bahadur Shah II
- Static Facts about Himachal Pradesh
- First in Himachal Pradesh
- First Chief Minister is Yashwant Singh Parmar
- First Governor is Sh. S. Chakravarti
- First Chief Commissioner is N.C Mehta
- First Chief Justice of India from Himachal Pradesh is Mr. Mehar Chand Mahajan
- First lady governor is Sheela Kaul
- Mr. Sunil Sharma was the first man to climb Mount Everest
- State Symbols of Himachal Pradesh
- State animal : Snow leopard
- State bird: Western Tragopan (Jujurana)
- State Flower: Common rhododendron
- Summer Capital: Shimla
- Winter Capital: Dharamshala
- State Dance: Naati
- Political Facts
- Number of Assembly seats: 68
- Number of Lok Sabha seats: 4
- Number of Rajya Sabha seats: 3
- Conferred statehood : 25th Jan, 1971
- Exciting Concepts
- Toy train(Kalka Shimla Train) is the center of attraction. It covers 806 bridges, 103 tunnels and 18 stations.
- Kasol is also called mini Israel.
- Himachal Pradesh is also called land of deities as almost every village has its own god.
- Lahaul and Spiti district is the largest area wise whereas kangra is largest population wise.
- “Kharjiar” in chamba district is also called mini Switzerland.
- Dusshera of Kullu is very special and lasts for seven days. It starts on Vijaydashmi and attracts a lot of tourist from all over the world.
- Floating island in Parashar lake in Mandi is center of attraction
Let us know some Interesting facts about human body
- Largest and strongest bone in the human body: Femur (thigh bone)
- Smallest bone in the body: Stapes in ear
- Largest white blood cells: Monocytes
- Smallest white blood cells: Lymphocyte
- Largest gland: Liver
- Largest Artery: Aorta
- Largest vein: Inferior Vena Cava
- Weight of heart: 200-300 gm
- Compared with brain and liver, kidney have a higher blood flow. To know more about functionality of kidney, you may watch video being uploaded by glbaat on this.
- William Harvey is known for circulation of blood.
- Human kidney contain 1.15 millions nephrons.
- Alexander Fleming is known for the discovery of penicillin Lysozyme.
- Blood makes up around 7 % of the body weight.
- Blood cells floats in a yellow liquid called blood plasma.
- Protein Hemoglobin is contained in red blood cells. R.B.C carries oxygen. Hemoglobin contains iron which combines with oxygen which gives red color to blood.
- Platelets prevent blood clot.
- Red blood cells develop in bone marrow and circulates in the body for around 120 days.
- Average volume of blood present in the male is 5.6 litres.
- Average volume of blood present in females is 4.5 litres.
- A new baby have one cup of blood in his/her body.